Climate Change Adaptation Information Platform(A-PLAT)

Frequently Asked Questions

Answers to previously asked questions are answered here. For other questions, please inform us through the inquiry form.

A-PLAT (How to use, Contribute articles, etc.)

What are the recommended environments for using A-PLAT?
We recommend using the following browsers. Please use the latest version of each.
  • Internet Explorer
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※Some services do not support smartphones or tablets
I would like to use the logos listed on A-PLAT.
If you wish to use A-PLAT logo, please submit the Application for Use of A-PLAT Logo Mark. Please request the application form from the "Inquiry" form.
Please refer to the "Site Policy" for information on the use.
I would like to use the illustration that is posted on A-PLAT.
The illustrations below are freely available in the Creative Commons License Label, Prohibited Modifications, and Non-Profit use (no prior licensing is required).
Also, if you don't mind, I would appreciate it if you could report the product you used from "Inquiry" form at a later date. This is used for future improvement.
[Reference information]
※See Creative Commons License Indication-No Modifications-Non-profit or here (CC-License CC BY-NC-ND).
I would like to use the leaflet that is posted on A-PLAT.
Please indicate the type of leaflet, the required number of copies, the destination and the desired delivery date in the "Inquiry" form on A-PLAT.
Please note that the number of copies of the leaflet is limited and may not be accompanied by your request.
I’d like to use the movies listed in A-PLAT for our events.
Many videos on A-PLAT can be used in environmental training and non-profit activities. If it is not clear, please contact through the "Inquiry" form.
I would like to cite some of the content that is published in A-PLAT, but could you tell me how to describe the source?
Please describe as the following example.
Source: Climate Change Adaptation Information Platform Portal Site (URL for this page)
Used on ○th/month/year/month/day, etc.
See "Site Policy" for details.
I would like to abstract data on observations and prediction of climate change and publish it on the prefectural website.
Please use according to the "Regulations Governing the Use of Information on Climate Change in Japan and Prefectures"
Could you provide the numeric data displayed in WebGIS?
For the numerical data displayed on WebGIS, see the "List of indicators for future forecast data (WebGIS) and how to obtain them" section. Details of the indicators displayed and File formats provided are explained. Please refer to the usage regulations on the same page, fill out the application form, and contact us on the inquiry form.
Our event information on A-PLAT for advertisemenet.
Please inform us of the "Inquiry" form on A-PLAT. We will check the contents of the event and post it. For inquiries, please inform us of the date and time of the event, the title, and the URL of the link destination. Please note that depending on the content of the event, this may not be available.
Please make a post of our effort in the Adaptation Database.
Please inform us of the "Inquiry" form.
Please make a post of our effort in Adaptation Business and Climate Risk Management.

Please fill in the "Inquiry" form with the message "Request to publish case studies of business operators" and submit. Secretariat will send you the required documents. Please beware that cases that does not meet the purport will not be published. A-PLAT, National Institute for Environmental Studies, and Ministry of the Environment do not guarantee content of articles in “Adaptation Business” undertaken by the respective business operators. We shall not be liable to the user for any damage that may arise from the use of the Information.

About adaptation in general

How is climate change projected?

Emission scenarios and climate models are needed to predict climate change. Scenarios are future assumptions that are currently considered.
Human-induced global warming depends on future greenhouse gas emissions, depending on how the world develops (socioeconomic scenarios). For this reason, we define several patterns of future greenhouse gas emissions as "emission scenarios" and compare their forecasts. Currently, the typical route of concentrations (RCP: Representative Concentration Pathways) is typically used.
The global climate is created by complex interactions between the atmosphere, oceans, and land surfaces. The "climate model" is a computer program that describes equations that compute changes over time based on physical laws. Calculations are made by giving emissions scenarios to this Climate Model to predict how the future climate will change.
Climate models are being developed by national research institutions, but due to differences in models (e.g., clouds, ice effects, differences in lattice spacings that are the basis of calculations), the predicted results are different for the same emissions scenarios. Therefore, in general, when making projections of climate change, we will use the results of multiple climate models while mutually evaluating them.

Left figure: Meteorological Agency "Numerical forecast" is processed and prepared.
[Reference information]
The summary above is based on the explanations on National Institute for Environmental Studies website below. If you would like to know more about climate change projections, please visit:
  • ・"Q16 Global Warming projection, 100years from now using computers"
    ・"Q17 Climate-simulation models can produce any outcome?"
    ・"Q18 What does the range in climate change projection indicates?"
  • "What Is Global Warming?" in Part 1 of the Explanation on Environmental Sciences
    To predict future climate?
I would like to know some examples of advanced adaptation measures abroad.
Examples are presented in Case Studies sections of the European Commission, which leads climate-change studies and initiatives, and Climate ADAPT, which is an adaptation-information-platform run by the European Environmental Organization.
I would like to know more about the mechanisms and impacts of global warming.
National Institute for Environmental Studies's website "What You Need to Know about Global Warming" explains global warming by researchers. See here for details on global warming in general.
Please tell me some books about adaptation.
References to indications may include the following.
  • "Considering Adaptation to Climate Change" Yasuaki Hijioka
  • "Water and Sediment Disaster Adaptation Measures under Climate Change: Toward Social Implementation," National Land and Culture Institute, Ikeda Syunsuke, etc.
  • "Design of Climate-Change Adaptation Measures-Designing Climate Change Adaptation" by Nobuo Mimura, Shunji Ohta, and others
  • "Society for Adapting to Climate Change" Regional Adaptation Study Group, Mitsuru Tanaka, etc.
Are there any ISO standards on climate change adaptation?

As of March 2021, three ISO standards (ISO 14090, ISO 14091, and ISO/TS 14092) have been published related to climate change adaptation.

ISO 14090 (Adaptation to climate change - Principles, requirements and guidelines) is the first of the three standards to be published and provides principles, requirements and guidelines for working on climate change adaptation. It provides an overview of the requirements and considerations for addressing climate change without limiting the target audience.

ISO 14091 (Adaptation to climate change - Guidelines on vulnerability, impacts and risk assessment) focuses on how to assess climate change risks in the context of vulnerability and impacts in climate change adaptation efforts. It provides information on methods and requirements for climate change risk assessment.

ISO/TS 14092 (Adaptation to climate change - Requirements and guidance on adaptation planning for local governments and communities) provides guidance to local governments and communities in developing adaptation plans. It outlines the four steps of setting up an adaptation team, assessing the current situation, developing a plan, and implementing and managing the plan, as well as the requirements for repeating the PDCA cycle.

Researchers from the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) have participated in the development of these standards. These standards are written in English and other languages and are available for purchase as PDF files on the ISO official website.

About Adaptation Efforts by the National Government

Heavy rains and typhoons, which are often mentioned as results of the impacts of climate change, have caused situations in which evacuation is necessary in many parts of the country. Could you tell us about information that can be used as a reference for evacuation in such cases, as well as the government's efforts?

In recent years, heavy rains and typhoons that have been cited as impacts of climate change have caused situations in which evacuation is necessary in various regions. To prevent damage, various ministries and agencies disseminate various information and take various measures. The Prime Minister's Office presents in the disaster prevention guideline what kind of disasters will occur due to heavy rain and typhoons based on specific past cases, and provides information on how to act in such cases, when and where to evacuate.
Meteorological Agency presents disaster prevention weather information in the event of actual heavy rains. This Includes disaster prevention information, such as warning and caution information, and actions to be taken in accordance with the information.
To prevent lives from disasters, Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism assumed that it is crucial to prepare for the risk of disasters around us, where to evacuate and precaution. To make it easier and more convenient to use a variety of risk data useful for disaster prevention and the hazard maps created by municipalities nationwide, the Hazard Map Portal site is open.
It is necessary to collect the latest relevant information from the government and utilize it for evacuation and preparedness (this is based on the contents of each URL as of October 16, 2020).

What kind of initiatives is the Heat Stroke Alert?

In recent years, the number of people transported to hospitals for heat stroke has been on a remarkable upward trend, and it has become an issue how to disseminate information and lead to effective preventive actions by the public. For this reason, the Ministry of the Environment and the Japan Meteorological Agency held a study group of experts, and in the summer of 2020, the "Heat Stroke Alert (trial)" was first implemented in the Kanto region and the Koshin region to call for people to be "aware" of the heat and to effectively encourage people to take preventive actions against heat stroke in cases where the heat environment is predicted to have an extremely high risk of heat stroke based on the heat wave gust (WBGT) index. Based on the verification of the trial’s results, full-scale operation was launched nationwide on Wednesday, April 28, 2021.

The High Temperature Alert will be replaced by new information using the heat index (WBGT), which is highly correlated with the occurrence of heat stroke, and will be announced at around 5:00 p.m. on the previous day and at around 5:00 a.m. on the morning of the day when the heat index (WBGT) is expected to reach 33 degrees Celsius or higher at any point in a prefecture. When a heat stroke alert is announced, the following preventive actions are called for.

  1. Avoid going outside and avoid the heat as much as possible.
  2. Talk to people who are at high risk of heat stroke.
  3. Practice "heat stroke prevention behaviors" more than usual!
  4. As a general rule, cancel or postpone outside exercise.
  5. Check heat index (WBGT).

About Local Climate Change Adaptation

I was assigned to a department engaged in climate change adaptation. How should I acquire relevant knowledge?

Initially, we recommend learning through the following e-learning on Climate Change Adaptation. The report focuses on information published in A-PLAT to help those working on climate change learn about the impacts and adaptations of climate change.

  • Climate Change Adaptation e-Learning-Basic Knowledge of Impact and Adaptation

After the relevant content and overview have been grasped at the e-learning session, how about learning climate change impacts in each region and sectors and adaptation measures taken through WebGIS and impact assessment report below? In particular, it is desired to understand concrete examples focusing on the impacts of concern in your domain and adaptation measures that are closely related to your own job. It is also suggested to refer to adaptation plans in other regions.

In addition, if you want to learn about impacts and adaptation measures more concretely based on the latest research cases, etc. and practical cases, then you may want to look for research papers on the fields and impacts you want to learn and read them further on the URL below, the paper search site. It is also useful to collect information on specific examples of adaptation measures from Adaptation database

  • Research examples of climate change impact observation and impact prediction
  • Adaptation database
I would like to request the distribution of the e-mail magazine.
It is distributed mainly to local governments. Please fill in your affiliation, name, and e-mail address on the "Inquiry" form and let us know. You will be registered in the mailing list.
I would like to gather data and related information on the climate change impacts that have already occurred in the region. How can I proceed?

You can collect observation data to analyze whether or not impacts are actually occurring, and to conduct a questionnaire to local residents, etc. to collect information on the impacts of climate change that are being experienced. When collecting observation data, You can collect data using the Stevenson screen placed at elementary schools as in the case of Saitama Prefectural case, or to install an independent observation device as in the case of Nagano Prefectural case. Ministries and agencies also disclose relevant observation data and can identify the types of data available on the various observation data pages of A-PLAT, as well as the sources and methods of acquisition.

In addition, there are cases in which information and photographs concerning "changes in the immediate environment" are solicited on the website, as in the case of Shiga Prefecture, and questionnaires are conducted to collect information on the impacts of climate change already occurring among businesses in the prefecture, such as in Fukuoka Prefecture. The questionnaire survey case studies and questionnaire case studies can be checked on the following pages of A-PLAT.

Collection of impact information and implementation of adaptation measures should be carried out in cooperation with local residents, enterprises, and other stakeholders. What methods do you have?

Collaboration involves a variety of methods, including the holding of information and opinion exchange forums, collaborative implementation of events and projects, and collaborative implementation through subsidies, outsourcing, and consortiums. In the field of adaptation, there are examples of holding prefectural public workshops, establishing networks, conducting surveys in collaboration with the private sector, and promoting public awareness through collaboration.

Should you be careful when observing weather in a Local level?
When observing weather in a region, it is necessary to be aware that it may be necessary to comply with the standards stipulated in the Meteorological Business Act. In these cases, notification to the Director-General of Meteorological Agency is required when facilities for observation are installed (or removed). For details on the technical standards for meteorological observation and the notification and verification system, please refer to the following link.
I would like to conduct climate change impact projections in the region. How can I proceed?
The first step is to determine the areas and targets for climate change forecasting. In doing so, the image of the output and the timing of the prediction are also considered. Next, check whether or not an impact prediction model has already been developed and whether or not prediction has already been conducted for the area and the targets. If these cases can be identified, collect information related to the models and cases, and identify climate and other information needed to make future projections.
Once the above information is gathered, we will finally examine the items necessary for implementation. Determine whether the model can be Executed or processed by yourself and whether it needs to be outsourced to specialists or private companies. Some climatic scenarios and other information required for projections can be provided by National Institute for Environmental Studies. Please consult us when considering concrete estimates of the impacts.
Is there a relationship between the recent heavy rains and typhoons and climate change?

A quantitative evaluation of the impact of global warming on the probability of heavy rainfall corresponding to the heavy rainfall in northern Kyushu in July 2017 and July 2018 has been conducted, and it was found that the probability of these heavy rainfall events increased by about 1.5 times and 3.3 times, respectively, compared to the case without the effects of global warming. There has never been such an effort using high-resolution numerical simulations that can distinguish the characteristics of heavy rainfall in different regions of Japan. It is expected that this achievement will help to deepen society's understanding of the effects of global warming on heavy rainfall.

Global warming is no longer a problem of the future, and its effects are already emerging in our daily lives. A series of heavy rain disasters such as the heavy rain in northern Kyushu in 2017, the heavy rain in July 2018, and the heavy rain in July 2020 have caused tremendous damages. Since each extreme weather event is the result of a coincidence of "fluctuations" (autonomous deviations from the average state) inherent in the atmosphere and oceans, it has been considered difficult to quantitatively assess to what extent global warming had an impact on the occurrence of such events. In recent years, however, it has become possible to quantitatively evaluate the impact of global warming by statistically grasping the "fluctuation" using the "event attribution" method based on the results of a large number of numerical simulations using climate models. Specifically, we use a climate model to conduct a large number of numerical simulations under both warming and non-warming climate conditions, and quantitatively estimate the degree of change in the probability of occurrence of extreme weather events of interest.

The Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) has also announced that the heavy rainfall in July 2018 is thought to have been caused by an increase in water vapor due to global warming.

As climate change progresses, will there be less snowfall? Will it increase?

Changes in snowfall up to now is analyzed based on the data JMA has observed. Result says, since 1962, there has been a significant downward trend in the annual maximum snow depth in the regions along the Sea of Japan, and the number of days with heavy snowfall of 20 cm or more per day has also decreased. However, since the annual maximum snow depth varies greatly from year to year and the statistical period is relatively short, it has been pointed out that further accumulation of data is necessary to reliably capture the long-term change trend.

As for the future, except some areas in Hokkaido, snowfall and snow accumulation are expected to decrease due to global warming, but even if the average amount of snowfall decreases, it is pointed out that the risk of heavy snowfall that scarcely happen may increase, not necessarily decrease.

I would like to study climate change impacts and adaptation in the region. How do you do? Are there any funds available?

To examine conducting research on climate change impacts and adaptation in the region, the following pages provide reference information on the areas, topics, and summaries of the studies.

  • Case Study Conducted by stakeholders of the Local Climate Change Adaptation Center

As for research funds, it is conceivable to utilize competitive research funds such as Ministry of the Environment's comprehensive environmental research promotion fund and Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research by Japanese Society for the Promotion of Science. Environment Research and Technology Development Fund commenced in October, and Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research commenced in September (except for the International Joint Research Acceleration Fund; the International Joint Research Acceleration Fund is in April). It is desirable to prepare for the application before the public offering.

National Institute for Environmental Studies also offers a joint research (Adaptation category) system. It is assumed that research on the observation, monitoring, prediction and evaluation of impacts of climate change, and adaptation to climate change will be conducted jointly with the Local Climate Change Adaptation Center, etc., and application is open at any time. Please contact us if you have any topics of interest. For details, please refer to the URL below.

I would like to work on EbA in the region. Could you give me an overview of EbA and some examples, references, etc.?

The EbA (Ecosystem-based adaptation) is an adaptation that utilizes ecosystems. It is regarded as important in both the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change(UNFCCC) and the Convention on Biological Diversity(CBD), and the importance of the EbA has been widely recognized, such as the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) has also issued guidelines. It aims to deter and mitigate the impacts of climate change by maintaining and utilizing ecosystems. In addition, it is said that the use of plants can be expected to have an effect on carbon sequestration, and various benefits other than adaptation (co-benefits) can be produced. Efforts have also begun in Japan, Eco-DRR(Ecosystem-based disaster risk reduction) and efforts called Green Infrastructure are considered to have the same objectives as EbA if they are related to climate change impacts. Ministry of the Environment cites Eco-DRR as one of its effective countermeasures to the rising risks of climate-related disasters, and Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism cites its contribution to adaptation as one of the objectives of promoting green infrastructure in its Green Infrastructure Strategies.

National Institute for Environmental Studies also focuses on EbA research and can consult you when considering EbA research in local communities.

I would like to cooperate with other departments in order to formulate and promote an adaptation plan. What kind of cooperative methods do you have?

Examples of methods of collaboration with other departments include establishing cross-departmental subcommittees and organizations, collaborating through joint workshops and study meetings, asking departments to submit targets and projects relevant to adaptation, preparing targeted impact survey tables and deepening understanding among departments, and jointly conducting consignment projects from Ministry of the Environment to deepen understanding and personnel exchanges.

Are there anything to pay attention to when conducting questionnaires and hearings with local residents, etc.?
When conducting questionnaires to local residents, etc., the collected information may fall under the category of personal information that can identify a specific individual. Personal information must then be handled appropriately, depending on the type of agency responsible for each Local Climate Change Adaptation Center.
For example, local governments and local Incorporated Administrative Agency are required to handle personal information appropriately under the Act on the Protection of Personal Information, Incorporated Administrative Agency follows Incorporated Administrative Agency Act on the Protection of Personal Information, Business sector follows Act on the Protection of Personal Information, follow code in addition to that. Please refer to the following for more specific information by type of organization.

[In the case of Local Governments and Local Incorporated Administrative Agencies]
Local governments have established ordinances concerning the handling of personal information. Please confirm the applicable ordinances from the following link destinations. [Incorporated Administrative Agencies]
Incorporated Administrative Agency Personal Information Protection Law stipulates ① restrictions on the possession of personal information, ② clear indication of the purpose of use, ③ assurance of the accuracy of retained personal information, ④ conducting necessary for proper management of retained personal information, ⑤ obligations of employees, ⑥ restrictions on the use and provision of personal information, and ⑦ disclosure, correction, and suspension of use, etc., respectively.

[for business sector]
In the case of a business entity, based on the Personal Information Protection Law, entities that uses following informations are regarded as business entity with handling personal information and obligations are imposed(the Law Article2 4,5). Prsonal information databases, etc. (a collection of information that includes personal information and is specified by a Cabinet Order as (1) systematically structured so that specific personal information can be retrieved using a computer, or (2) systematically structured so that specific personal information can be easily retrieved. However, this excludes those specified by a Cabinet Order as having little risk of harming the rights and interests of individuals in terms of the method of use.)
The following are examples of obligations.
① In principle, it is necessary to notify or publicly announce the purpose of use of personal information (in some cases, it may be necessary to clarify the purpose), and in principle, it cannot be used for other purpose (Articles 15, 16, and 18 of the law).
② To the extent necessary for the achievement of the Purpose of Use, personal data (which means personal information constituting a personal information database, etc. (Article 2, para.6 of the law)) shall be kept accurate and up-to-date, and when it is no longer necessary to use, efforts shall be made to delete such personal data without delay (Article 19 of the law).
③ Necessary and appropriate measures to safeguard personal data, necessary and appropriate supervision of employees when they handle personal data, and necessary and appropriate supervision of contractors when they entrust the handling of personal data are required (Articles 20 to 22 of the Act).
④ Provision of personal data to a third party shall require the consent of the person in principle, except in certain cases (Article 23, para.1 of the law). As a method to replace the consent of the person, an opt-out method based on certain requirements (a method of notifying the person of certain matters in advance or making it easy to know, and suspending the provision to a third party at the request of the person) is provided. However, personal information requiring special consideration (meaning personal information including the race, creed, social status, history of the crime, the fact that the person has been Involved in the crime, and other statements specified by a Cabinet Order as requiring special consideration for the treatment of the person so as not to cause unjust discrimination, prejudice, or other disadvantages to the person (Article 2, para.3 of the Act)) is excluded from the scope of the opt-out method (Article 23, para.2 of the Act).
In addition, the obligation to prepare and preserve records when personal data is provided to a third party and the obligation to confirm certain matters when receiving personal data from a third party is provided (Articles 25 and 26 of the law).
It is also stipulated that when a person who receives personal data due to outsourcing, business succession, or joint use does not fall under the category of a third party (Article 23, para.5 of the law).
⑤ Where a person requests disclosure, correction, suspension of use, suspension of provision to a third party, etc. of retained personal data (meaning personal data that a business operator handling personal information is authorized to disclose, correct, add or delete the content, suspend the use, delete, or suspend the provision to a third party, and which is specified by a Cabinet Order as being harmful to the public interest or other interests by clarifying the existence or non-existence of such personal data, or is to be deleted within a period of not more than one year as specified by a Cabinet Order (Article 2, para.7 of the Act), the person must comply with the requirements, etc. prescribed by laws and regulations (Articles 28 to 30 of the Act).
⑥ Entities shall be required to comply with a request for notification, disclosure, correction, suspension of use, or suspension of provision to a third party of the retained personal data for the purpose of use, and shall remain in a state in which the person is aware of matters such as the person to whom the complaint is filed (including cases where the entities responds without delay at the request of the person concerned) (Article 27 of the Act).
Since the Personal Information Protection Law is abstract in the way it defines obligations, interpretation guideline is formulated. Please check from the following link destinations.
Laws and guidelines of the personal information protection committee
Are there any cases that stipulate the roles and efforts of local governments, businesses, and citizens in terms of adaptation, or that incorporate specific adaptation measures into the ordinance?
Multiple municipalities have established ordinances that define the details of adaptation. Tokushima Prefecture and Sendai City have set forth in their ordinances what the local government, businesses, residents, etc. should work on. In Ishikawa Prefecture, the prefectural government promotes adaptation and provides relevant information. In the prefectural government's comprehensive environmental plan, the prefectural government stipulates that adaptation plans stipulated in the Adaptation Law should be established. In Mie Prefecture, the prefectural government also provides information on adaptation. Hyogo Prefecture also describes the necessity of maintaining the flood function by agricultural land, infiltration and retention of rainwater Features forests have, and securing the prefectural land conservation function, which are regarded as concrete adaptation measures (Ecosystem-based Adaptation). These cases can be used as a reference when considering adaptation ordinances in other regions.
What are the methods for disseminating information and raising awareness about climate change impacts and adaptations to citizens and businesses?

Various local communities and municipalities use various tools and events such as HP, leaflets, workshops, and seminars to disseminate information and raise awareness.
The Local Climate Change Adaptation Center, which is being established throughout Japan, creates its own website and disseminates relevant information. In the case of Mie Prefecture, introduce the necessity of adaptation, climate forecasts in Mie Prefecture, and examples of adaptation measures.

In addition, various other methods are used for transmission. In the case of Aichi Prefecture, the "Aichi Climate Change Adaptation Center Newsletter" is published monthly to provide relevant information according to the time of year and season, and in the case of Hyogo Prefecture, workshops are held to promote awareness.

Shizuoka Prefecture is the first prefecture in Japan to set up an exhibition on climate change adaptation at a museum in the prefecture. In order to think about the impacts and adaptations of climate change as a matter of course, Various initiatives are taken through exhibitions

The following "Friquently Asked Questions" summarizes the points to keep in mind when collecting and disseminating related information. Please also refer here.

In the community, local actors have been practicing the dissemination of adaptation through workshops, how should we proceed?

The following points should be considered when conducting workshops in order to raise awareness of adaptation.

  • Purpose of the workshop
  • Workshop methods (e.g., discussions in multiple groups)
  • Participants
  • Venue

For the implementation of the workshop, the following workshop guides prepared by Kinki Regional Environmental Office are helpful. Please refer to the URL below, the items necessary for the advance preparation are also explained.

In addition, regarding the workshop in Hyogo Prefecture conducted based on this workshop manual, you can check the contents of the workshop and the materials used at the following URL.

Due to the new coronavirus, it is difficult to conduct activities such as research on climate change impact and adaptation due to the limitation of people gathering together. Are there any countermeasures?

As a new lifestyle to prevent new coronavirus infections, it is recommended that people be spaced as much as 2m apart as possible, and that conferences be held online. As a result, efforts by people are limited to a certain extent. In order to continue surveys on climate change impacts and adaptation even in such situations, various measures have been taken.

The Institute for Environmental Conservation in Nagano Prefecture is conducting the "Cicada Research at Home 2020" to study the distribution of cicadas in the future using an application that can be used on smartphones and tablet devices to collect basic information for studying how the distribution of cicadas is changing and how it is related to climate change. Prefectural citizens can input semi-distribution information remotely from applications, and can also view the resulting distribution on the Web.

Osaka Prefecture's Institute for Environment, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries also conducts a survey called "native vs. alien" quest using smartphone applications to investigate how climate change is related to the distribution of living things. This initiative is based on the free smartphone application "Biome" developed by Biome Co., Ltd., which allows anyone to easily participate in this initiative, and allows anyone to make contributions to people who are not familiar with them and to see other people's contributions. This is also based on the assumption that they will participate remotely.

In FY2020, National Institute for Environmental Studies also offered online climate-adaptation training using Zoom applications. We also hold online panel discussions and group discussions. Not only in the areas of climate change impacts and adaptation, but also in a variety of other areas, efforts are being made to create innovations and take on challenges. It is necessary to continue the related investigations and other activities while referring to the preceding examples in other fields.

What are some of the things to keep in mind when collecting relevant information, preparing materials and disseminating information to promote adaptation in the community?

When collecting relevant information to promote adaptation in the region and preparing materials and disseminating information, it is necessary to be aware that third parties may have copyrights or other rights to the relevant information collected.

With respect to content for which a third party has a copyright or content for which a third party has a right other than a copyright (e.g. portrait rights in photographs, publicity rights, etc.), it is considered necessary to obtain authorization from the third party at the user's responsibility, except for content for which the third party has clearly indicated that the rights have been processed.

Content that is owned by a third party may be used without the permission of the copyright holder, such as citations permitted under the Copyright Law.

I would like to send out studies on adaptation conducted in the local community. Can you introduce it on A-PLAT?

The dissemination of the outcome of each region is an important issue, and we would like to consult with you individually about possible approaches that A-PLAT can take. We would be happy to discuss with you on a case-by-case basis what A-PLAT can do for you.

Please use the contact form to let us know what you would like to have published.

About Adaptation for Private Sectors

We would like to proceed with adaptation efforts, but I don't know what to start from. Please let me know if you have any reference materials.
Ministry of the Environment, Japan has prepared the “Climate Change Adaptation Guide for Private Sector -Preparing for Climate Riskand Surviving-“for those involved in the management and practices of private sectors to improve their comprehension of the relationship between climate change and business activities and to use it as a reference for advancing adaptation efforts. This guide introduces the impacts of climate change on business activities, the basic approach to adaptation, and the merits of private sector initiatives.
Even if we are asked to adapt to climate change, we are ought to plan for the next few years, and planning for the several decades ahead is not so easy. What should we do?
"Adaptation" to climate change refers to efforts to improve business continuity and resilience by avoiding and mitigating risks in preparation for climate change impacts that are currently occurring and could happen in the future. Adaptation to climate change does not necessarily require extensive efforts. How to proceed depends on the objectives of climate change adaptation and the nature of the project. The time frame to be reviewed (when to consider the future) is also assumed to be several decades ahead, and may be approximately three years in line with the period of the medium-term business plan. Various impacts have been already occurring. It is important to start with the measures that are needed now in order to carry out your own business activities smoothly.
Strategic efforts of climate change adaptation are considered to have the following benefits.
  • Enhance business continuity
  • Enable to build a flexible and resilient management base to climate change impacts
  • Enhance trust from stakeholders and lead to greater competitiveness
  • Enable to develop the products and the services as climate change Adaptation business
Ministry of the Environment's private-sector adaptation guide (“Climate Change Adaptation Guide for Private Sector -Preparing for Climate Riskand Surviving-“ ) provides examples of how climate change adaptation can be fundamentally promoted. This reference will help to start recognizing the relationship between changes in the business environment caused by climate change and the company's business correctly. By thoroughly analyzing the impacts of our business activities on climate change and promoting initiatives tailored to their respective characteristics, we will be able to promote climate change adaptation economically and effectively.
A-PLAT classifies examples of business activities into "Climate Risk Management" and " Adaptation Business ." What are the differences between these two categories?
“Climate Risk Management” refers to the efforts to reduce the impact of climate change in the company's business activities. “Adaptation Business” refers to the efforts to develop products and services which promote adaptation of others by regarding adaptation as a business opportunity of the own company. The former protects our business activities from the impacts of climate change, and the latter is an aggressive approach that considers adaptation as an opportunity.
A-PLAT includes examples of Climate Risk Management (domestic and foreign) and Adaptation Businesses (domestic).
I often hear the word "TCFD" in the private sectors' efforts of climate change adaptation. What is TCFD?

TCFD is an abbreviation for the Climate-Related Financial Disclosure Task Force (Task Force on Climate-related Financial Disclosures, TCFD).

The Financial Stability Board (FSB) was established in December 2015 at the request of the Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors' Meeting in G20. After about a year and a half of discussions, the final report (TCFD recommendations) was released in June 2017. TCFD encourages companies to disclose corporate governance/strategy/risk management/indicators and targets related to climate-related risks and opportunities.
Climate-related risks have transition and physical risks, and they need to be assessed, as well as to show countermeasures. The former is a response to the risks associated with the transition to a low-carbon economy and includes mitigation measures. The latter is a response to the risks associated with "physical" changes caused by climate change and is centered on adaptation measures. Climate-related opportunities are also expected to include both mitigation and adaptation measures, such as increased revenues from demand for low carbon products and services and increased market value through resilience plans.
By referring to the "Guidance on Climate-Related Financial Information Disclosure (TCFD Guidance)" issued by the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry and the "Scenario Analysis Practical Guide for Incorporating Climate-Related Risks and Opportunities" issued by Ministry of the Environment, you can refer to the explanations in disclosing information in accordance with TCFD recommendations and the points of practice when conducting scenario analysis that incorporates climate-related risks and opportunities into management strategies together with examples. A-PLAT also introduces examples of the efforts by Japanese companies.

TCFD based scenarios are said to be crucial in corporate efforts. What is scenario analysis? How should scenario analysis be conducted?

Scenario analysis is a tool for an organization to tackle long-term, uncertain challenges strategically.
TCFD provides the following processes as a reference for businesses to analyze scenarios. In the Practical Guide for Scenario-Analyzing Incorporating Climate-Related Risks and Opportunities, published by Ministry of the Environment, you can refer to the actual points and examples of practices in each process.

  1. Improvement of governance: Incorporate scenario analysis into strategy formulation and risk management processes, and establish a monitoring system by the relevant Board of Directors, etc. and identify how to engage with internal and external stakeholders.
  2. Assessment of Risk Criticality: Assessment of the magnitude of the possible impact from "Transition Risk" and "Physical Risk."
  3. Definition of scenario groups: Establishment of multiple future scenarios that encompass relevant transition risks and physical risks.
  4. Assessment of business impact: Assessment of possible impacts on the company's strategic and financial position in each scenario.
  5. Definition of measures: Identify applicable and realistic options to manage identified risks and opportunities.
  6. Documentation and Disclosure: Document the process.
I've heard that some companies see adaptation as a business opportunity and are expanding their business overseas. What are some examples of this?

In the "Good Practices for Adaptation" compiled by the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI), the following examples are introduced: the production of high-quality mung beans in salt-affected areas to ensure a stable supply of food and strengthen the production base, and the production and sale of mosquito nets to control malaria in malaria-affected areas to prevent the increase of infectious diseases caused by climate change. In addition, the "Introduction to Global Warming Adaptation Business for Companies" provided by METI shows the steps for business development in developing countries and the support systems for adaptation projects in Japan and abroad.

Awareness of the importance of adaptation measures is increasing internationally, and there are potential business opportunities in all countries, including developing countries. The global adaptation business is estimated to have a potential market size of up to 50 trillion yen worldwide as of 2050, and with increasing demand for products and technologies that contribute to solving various adaptation issues, business opportunities are forming for Japanese companies with solutions.

It is possible for you to consider overseas business development through adaptation measures while utilizing existing cases, knowledge and information.

I would like to examine how climate change will affect my business activities in Japan and overseas. Is there any information or tools that can help me predict and assess the impact?

The “Climate Change Adaptation Guide for Private Sector -Preparing for Climate Riskand Surviving-“ prepared by the Ministry of the Environment, Japan, introduces the impact of climate change on business activities, the basic approach to adaptation efforts, and the benefits of adaptation efforts by private companies. You can find this guide in the section of "Adaptation for Private Sectors" in A-PLAT.

In the "Impact Assessment Information" section, we introduce various impact assessment tools for climate change risk in Japan and abroad. You can check domestic and global impact assessment information on Web-GIS, and also refer to public tools used for water risk assessment of projects.

About Adaptation for Individuals and Communities

What are the actions for adaptation that individuals can take?
We can take actions on a daily basis such as these; for the measures against heat stroke, replenishing water and salinity frequently in the summer, and for the heavy rainfall, considering procedures of evacuation in advance. Also, learning what climate change impacts affect individuals and examining measures to address these impacts can be called as the climate change adaptation.
A-PLAT features recommendations for each of the seven sectors of climate change adaptation which are familiar to us, content to learn the impacts of climate change and adaptation that are occurring in Japan, and websites that enable one to share the information around oneself by photos and texts to others.
Should individuals take actions to mitigate emissions of greenhouse gases to prevent climate change at all, or should they adapt to deter damage from climate change that has been occurring?
Mitigation is the control of greenhouse gas emissions, which are the cause of climate change, and must be addressed with the highest priority. Adaptation is to coordinate the nature and human societies with climate change impacts that are inevitable despite mitigation.
Even with maximum emissions reduction efforts (mitigation measures), greenhouse gases emitted in the past accumulate in the atmosphere, and climate change impacts to a certain extent are inevitable and need to be address adaptation. On the other hand, adaptation cannot mitigate the impacts of all climate change. In other words, it is necessary to make efforts to mitigate as much as possible, and to adapt to the effects that will still occur.
Do we have to be careful from the viewpoint of preventing heat stroke while working on a "new lifestyle" to prevent the spread of new coronavirus?

Three basic principles for preventing new coronavirus infections are: ① securing physical distance; ② wearing masks; ③hand washing and “Avoid Three Cs (1.Closed spaces, 2.Crowded places, and 3. Close-contact settings)," and the "new lifestyles" are required. The points of preventive action against heat stroke in these "new lifestyles" are as follows. When air conditioners are used to avoid heat, it is recommended to carefully adjust the temperature setting of the air conditioners while ensuring ventilation by ventilating fans or opening windows to prevent infectious diseases. In the outdoors, it s recommended to remove the mask if a sufficient distance (2 m or more) from other people can be secured.

  1. Let’s avoid heat
  2. Let’s remove the mask appropriately.
  3. Let's take water frequently.
  4. Let’s manage health on a daily basis
  5. Let’s build your body for the heat

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